Indonesia

Indonesia has committed to reduce its GHGs by 29% below Business-As-Usual (BAU) by 2030, and by an additional 12% by the same date if international support is forthcoming. The country is also committed to a mixed energy use policy to bring renewables to 23% of the energy mix by 2015. To this end, Indonesia is committed to capacity building at the local level and enhanced urban waste and wastewater management policies, especially waste-to-energy. You can download Indonesia’s latest NDC here.

The Urban-LEDS project Phase I was implemented in Indonesia, where a total of eight cities participated. Two Model cities, Balikpapan and Bogor, as well as six Satellite cities participated in the Urban-LEDS process and received support to develop Low Emission Development Strategies, GHG inventories, climate commitments and to implement a variety of low emission development solutions. Key achievements are outlined below. In Phase II of the Urban-LEDS project, participating cities will be supported in a review of the progress they have made towards low emission development, with a focus on developing project proposals and seeking funding to implement the action plans developed in Phase I. Where needed, data will be updated, including greenhouse gas inventories and vulnerability risk assessments.

Led by: ICLEI Indonesia Program Office
Supported by: UN-Habitat Regional Office for Asia Pacific

About Indonesia

The low emission strategies developed by participating cities were aligned with a Presidential Regulation (No. 61 of 2011) that mandated implementation of emission reduction planning at the central, provisional and local levels. Such regulations provide a basis for further policy dialogue on vertical integration.

At the same time ICLEI Southeast Asia is implementing the Rockefeller Foundation’s Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN) in Indonesia. The ten cities being assisted through this initiative include three Urban-LEDS I cities (Bogor, Balikpapan and Tangerang Selatan); this offers an opportunity for follow-on support, with an emphasis on actions that yield both mitigation and adaptation benefits. Along those lines the country’s commitment to increased use of renewable energy offers encouragement to projects such as waste-to-energy. The Indonesian Project Advisory Group (PAG) was formed during a meeting Bogor in July 2013, comprising representatives from the national government and other key stakeholders in the low emissions development field, to assist the Urban-LEDS cities and to ensure alignment with national strategies. Most members of the original PAG, though, no longer hold their position in their organizations, and the group has been reestablished with new members in phase 2, taking the opportunity to create synergy with a similar group foreseen in the Ambitious City Promises (ACP) and the 100% Renewable Energy Projects. To this end, coordination with the national government has been made, in particular with the Urban, Housing and Settlement and the Environmental Directorate of BAPPENAS (National Planning and Development Ministry), as well as with European Union representatives.
The PAG is envisioned to be a small multi-sectoral group comprised of ten to twenty individuals representing relevant government agencies and key development partners. Representatives of Urban-LEDS partner cities and ACP partner cities will be invited to be members of the PAG. Indonesia’s PAG is composed of representatives of Coordinating Ministry for Economy, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ministry of Planning & Development, Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Public Works & Housing, APEKSI (Association of Indonesia Municipalities), WWF Indonesia, SDSN Indonesia, Research Center on Climate Change University of Indonesia, European Commission, UN-Habitat and the President’s Special Envoy for Climate Change.

Contact us

ICLEI Southeast Asia Secretariat
Units 3-4, Manila Observatory Ateneo de Manila University
Loyola Hts., Quezon City 1108, Philippines
Tel & Fax: +632 426 0851
E-mail: iclei-sea@iclei.org

UN-HABITAT Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
ACROS Fukuoka Building, 8th Floor
1-1-1 Tenjin, Chuo-ku
Fukuoka 810-0001, Japan
Tel: + 81 92 724 7121
Fax: +81 92 724 7124
E-mail: habitat.fukuoka@unhabitat.org
Website: http://www.fukuoka.unhabitat.org/

Country achievements

Coming soon

Results from Phase I

The national project launch took place in Bogor City in July 2013.
As Urban-LEDS Phase I finished, Indonesian cities had achieved the following:

  • Bogor: In November 2014, the city adopted a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and the 5-Year Mid-Term Development Plan in Bogor (RPJMD2014-2019). The RPJMD is a mandatory document for the planning process which is undertaken by local governments in Indonesia, it includes the City’s Low Emission Development Strategy. As a vital document that determines the future direction of the city development, mandated by National Regulation. Both documents recognize climate change mitigation, adaptation and disaster risk reduction as strategic priorities.
  • Balikpapan: In August 2016 the City approved a Mitigation Action Plan, as part of the City’s 5-Year Mid-Term Development Plan for Balikpapan (RPJMD 2016-2020). The Action Plan reflects the city’s emission reduction target of 25% and includes robust guidelines for low emission development, such as smart street lighting, energy efficiency in buildings, sustainable public transport, and waste management.
  • All eight Indonesian cities have developed a GHG emissions inventory, and both model cities are reporting in the carbonn® Climate Registry (cCR). You can visit their profiles in the city pages .
  • All eight Indonesian cities have implemented a range of low emission development solutions with the help of Urban-LEDS, including: energy efficient lighting, low carbon waste management, green buildings, sustainable transport, fuel switch and awareness raising. To read more about these solutions, download the final Urban-LEDS report or visit the city pages.
  • The project’s 2nd International Networking Seminar was hosted by the City of Bogor, from 5-7 May 2015.

Balikpapan is a seaport city on the East coast of Borneo in East Kalimantan, eastablished at the beginning of the 20th century with an area of 503.30 KM2 land. Balikpapan as a service city makes this area as the tenth city of MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, and Exhibition) in Indonesia, namely as a city that became the center of meetings, conferences and exhibitions in Indonesia. The city and its surrounding region are rich in resources and internationally known for their timber, mining, and petroleum export production. Balikpapan’s two harbors and airport are the main transportation hubs.

In general, Balikpapan has a contour area that is hilly (85%) with an altitude between 0 to more than 100 meters above sea level (asl).

Size of population (year) 625,965 (2016)
Size (km²) 503.33 km²
Population density (year) 1243.65 hab/km² (2016)
Official language(s) Bahasa
Major economic activities in the city Primary sector: agriculture, mining, fishing. Secondary sector: industry, manufacturing. Tertiary: services.
Population growth trend 1.66%
% of population living in urban areas 52.09 %
Average annual rate of urbanisation
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year) 1,758,841 tCO2e/year
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile Click here
Urban-LEDS city profile Not available yet

Greenhouse Gas emissions by sector

  • Transport
  • Residential
  • Commercial and Institutional
  • Solid waste
  • Water waste
  • Manufacturing
  • Other
Source Amount (tCO2e) %
Transport 36.4%
Residential 24.9%
Commercial and Institutional 24.7%
Solid waste 5.8%
Water waste 3.5%
Manufacturing 3.1%
Other 1.6%

Bogor City is located in the southern Jakarta Metropolitan Area, West Java Province, Indonesia. Green sceneries abound in the area owing to a botanical garden located in the middle of the city. Consisting of 6 sub-districts and 68 sub-districts, Bogor is considered as a trade and tourist destination. Bogor is also a pioneer among secondary cities in Indonesia in terms of pursuing sustainable development initiatives. The city has involved in Urban-LEDS I.

Hilly, flat with a Ciliwung River and Cisadane River cutting across the city.

Size of population (year) 1,081,099 (2017)
Size (km²) 118.5 km²
Population density (year) 9,122 hab/km² (2017)
Official language(s) Indonesian
Major economic activities in the city Tertiary sector: Wholesale, retail trading. Secondary sector: industry.
Population growth trend 1.5%
% of population living in urban areas 100%
Average annual rate of urbanisation
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year) 2.122.029 tCO2/2016 (CCROM IPB Study)
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile Click here
Urban-LEDS city profile Not available yet

Greenhouse Gas emissions by sector

  • Energy
  • Waste
  • AFOLU
Source Amount (tCO2e) %
Energy 91%
Waste 8%
AFOLU 1%

Bontang is a city on the eastern coast of the island of Borneo in Indonesia, in the province of East Kalimantan. The major development of Bontang took place after two major companies were founded there in the 1970s, PT Badak Liquid Natural Gas and PT Pupuk Kaltim. The former was established in 1974. PT Pupuk Kaltim, a company specializing in the production of ammonia and fertilizer, followed three years later. Bontang has a tropical rainforest climate. As such the temperature is warm and relatively stable throughout the year. Rainfalls are frequent and abundant. Bontang also has a mangrove park which become tourist destination. The city was already involved in phase 1 of Urban-LEDS as a satellite city.

A generally hilly town located on an ocean estuary. It has little to no tectonic activity and is generally swampy, thus making it prone to floodings. A mangrove forest is situated within the town, while the Api-Api River provides the town with fresh water.

Size of population (year) 170,611 (2017)
Size (km²) 497.57 km²
Population density (year) 340 hab/km² (2017)
Official language(s) Indonesian
Major economic activities in the city Primary sector: processing industry (oil and gas) and manufacture. The processing industry supports the economy of Bontang City. In 2017, the sector contributed 83.95 percent towards Bontang City’s Gross Regional Domestic Products. As one of the industrial cities for oil and gas processing, The Bontang City Government has a Local Owned Enterprises (BUMD) that manage mining, processing, and oil and gas trade and energy professionals in order to take advantage for development for the community and Bontang City Government. One product which is distributed is city gas. In the year of 2017, the amount of city gas produced amounting to 34.88 mmscf. The amount of gas that is sold reached 95.81 percent of the total produced in 2017. Meanwhile, according to the type of consumer, the amount of city gas mostly distributed to non-business/household. The amount of city gas distributed to household consumers reached 87.47 percent.

Secondary sector: fishing. Geographical location of the Bontang City on the seafront, making the City Bontang as one of the marine fish producer region in East Kalimantan. Seaweed commodities also become one of the products that continues to be developed. For this matter, Bontang City already has a grass cultivation area sea in the Gusung area. To develop it, Bontang City Government plans to set up a processing plant seaweed intended for improve people’s welfare with continued cultivation processing of the seaweed.

Tertiary: services and tourism. Besides the city of industry, the City Bontang is also a tourism destination. Wet Rice Island with texture of exotic nature and blue sea become one of the tourist destinations. Travel to this island can take about 1 hour from the port Tanjung Laut. Bontang City still has another area for tourist destinations, such as the area Bontang Kuala which is a settlement above the sea. There, people can enjoy Bontang Kuala a variety of seafood products such as fresh fish, crabs, shrimp, squid. To support tourism in Bontang City, 31 hotels have now been established and lodging, consisting of 3 hotels starred and 28 motels, with a total of 803 rooms and 1,164 beds.

Population growth trend 2,24% (2017)
% of population living in urban areas
Average annual rate of urbanisation
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile
Urban-LEDS city profile Not available yet

Bogor Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Bogor) is a regency (kabupaten) of West Java, Indonesia. Bogor regency was involved in Phase 1 of Urban-LEDS as satellite city. Mostly consisting of highlands, hills, and mountains, with numerous deltas, ponds, lakes, and water springs.

Size of population (year) 5,715,009 people (2017)
Size (km²) 2,663.83 km²
Population density (year) 2,146 hab/km² (2017)
Official language(s) Indonesian, Sundanese, Betawi, and English
Major economic activities in the city Primary sector: industry, manufacturing, trading, and agriculture. Secondary sector: tourism, mining. Tertiary: services
Population growth trend 2,28% (2017)
% of population living in urban areas
Average annual rate of urbanisation
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile
Urban-LEDS city profile Not available yet

Located in a lowland area with Angke Creek, Pesanggrahan Creek, and Cisadane River flowing through it.

Size of population (year) 1,593,812 (2017)
Size (km²) 147.19 km²
Population density (year) 11,000 hab/km² (2017)
Official language(s) Indonesian
Major economic activities in the city Primary sector: services, trade, tourism, real estate. Secondary sector: telecommunications and transportation. Tertiary: farming and mining
Population growth trend A relatively upward trend due to the quick development of the area.
% of population living in urban areas
Average annual rate of urbanisation
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile Click here
Urban-LEDS city profile Not available yet

Tarakan is the largest city of the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. The island of Tarakan is located in northern Borneo, just across the border from Sabah, Malaysia. It is the sole city within the newly established (in 2012) Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. Tarakan was involved in the phase I of Urban-LEDS project as satellite city.

Located on a large island off the coast of northern Borneo. It is dominated by lowlands with various beaches and tidal swamps, however it also has a couple of hilly terrains or two. Tarakan also have alluvial plains and mangroves grew in abundance within the city’s tidal swamps. The characteristic of terrain in Tarakan City is quite wavy, with the hilly parts of the city located in the centre of the island. Like all Indonesian cities, Tarakan has a tropical climate.

Size of population (year) 244,211 (2018)
Size (km²) 250.80 km²
Population density (year) 973.62 hab/km² (2018)
Official language(s) Indonesian and Tidungese
Major economic activities in the city Primary sector: trading, industry, and manufacturing. Secondary sector: fishery and forestry. Tertiary: oil and mining
Population growth trend 3,66% (2015-2016)
% of population living in urban areas
Average annual rate of urbanisation
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile
Urban-LEDS city profile Not available yet

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