Rwanda

Rwanda’s NDC catalogues a number of activities to be implemented that will yield quantifiable reductions in GHG emissions, and suggests that an overall target for GHG emissions reduction will be forthcoming. Rwanda’s Urbanization and Rural Settlement Sector Strategic Plan (2013 – 2017) calls for the development of urban planning guidelines that promote compact development and green building principles – elements consistent with low emission urban development.

The Government of Rwanda has requested UN-Habitat’s support in developing a Smart Cities Framework. This initiative, which will help Rwandan cities adopt a smart city approach, offers an entry point to low-emission development and related policy dialogues. Rwanda’s NDC also offers potential entry points for Urban-LEDS with its calls for increasing public transport, establishing eco-industrial parks, and recognizing that urban waste represents a potential resource stream. District officials can apply directly to the Government’s Environment and Climate Change Fund (FONERWA) for funds to support climate action and they have benefited from targeted assistance from the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) to improve the quality of their submittals. The cities participating in the project receive support to develop Low Emission Development Strategies, GHG emission inventories, climate commitments and to implement a variety of low emission development solutions – see page At a glance and Achievements.

Led by: ICLEI Africa Secretariat.
Supported by: UN-Habitat Rwanda Office, Regional Office for Africa

About Rwanda

The inaugural Rwandan national Project Advisory Group (PAG) meeting was hosted by ICLEI Africa and UN-Habitat in September 2018 in the city of Kigali. The following institutions attended: Local Administrative Entities Development Agency (LODA), Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), Ministry of Local Government (MINALOC), City of Kigali, District of Muhanga, District of Rubavu, Rwanda Environmental Management Authority (REMA), Rwandan Association of Local Government Authorities (RALGA), UN-Habitat.

Country achievements

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Contact us

ICLEI Africa Secretariat
3 Knowledge Park, Century City, Cape Town
Tel: +27212020381
Fax: +27 87 809 6185
E-mail: iclei-africa@iclei.org

UN-Habitat Rwanda Office, Regional Office for Africa
E-mail: roaas@unhabitat.org

Cities

Huye
Kigali
Muhanga
Nyagatare
District of Musanze
Rubavu
Rusizi

See tabs below for city profiles.

Information forthcoming.

Size of population (year)
Size (km²)
Population density (year)
Official language(s)
Major economic activities in the city
Population growth trend
% of population living in urban areas
Average annual rate of urbanization
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile
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The City of Kigali is the capital city of Rwanda, and has been since Rwandan independence in 1962. The city is comprised of three districts: Kicukiro, Gasabo, and Nyarugenge, and 35 sectors. The city’s vision is to make Kigali the “Center of Urban Excellence in Africa”, which the city has identified 3 pillars to support: social inclusion, sustainable development, and economic growth. The City of Kigali is Rwanda’s economic, cultural, and transport hub. The City is also connected internationally by the Kigali International Airport located in the heart of Kigali.

Kigali is the Capital and largest City of Rwanda, geographically located at the heart of Rwanda. The City is well known for its numerous hills spread across the four ridges with valleys in between and southern wetlands. The climate is tropical with annual average high temperatures of 26.9°C and low temperatures of 15.7°C, with annual precipitation of 950.9mm.

Size of population (year) 1,132,686 (2012)
Size (km²) 730 km²
Population density (year) 1, 551hab/km²
Official language(s) Kinyarwanda, English, French, Swahili
Major economic activities in the city Over 500,000 people work in the city and are mainly, employed in the fields of public administration, safety, healthcare and social assistance, education and training, retail trade and professional, scientific and technical services among others. These city workers do not only consist of Kigali residents but also workers from other districts. The tourism and construction sectors in Kigali are growing significantly. The City accounts for 39% of all non‐farm wage‐employment in the country and more than 50% of all formal private sector firms and employment in those firms. Primary sector: Agriculture accounts for 22% of all employment. Secondary Sector: Industry accounts for 21% of all employment. Tertiary Sector: Services accounts for 57% of all employment. (Sub Sector Employment Projections 2011-2020)
Population growth trend 4.2% (2011). City of Kigali’s population grew by 148% from 2002 – 2012.
% of population living in urban areas 75.9% (2012)
Average annual rate of urbanization
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile

Muhanga is located in the southern province of Rwanda, West of Kigali, one of the eight districts comprising the Southern Province. It is subdivided into 12 sectors, 63 cells, and 331 villages.

The District covers an area of 647.7 km2  and neighbors the districts of Gakenke in the North, Kamonyi in the East, Ruhango in the South, and Ngororero in the West. Muhanga District is among the areas that supply the City of Kigali with food such as vegetables, fruit, and meats. Muhanga District is also located at the juncture between Kigali and the Southern and Western Provinces, the Republic of Burundi, and East of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Major towns of Southern Province connected to Muhanga Secondary City are Ruhango, Nyanza, Huye, and Nyamagabe, while those of the Western Province are Ngororero and Karongi. It is also connected to the Mayaga region rich in agricultural production. This strategic location makes Muhanga Secondary City an economic hub that strives for development in trade and other businesses in the Southern part of the country by supplying goods and services. 3 Sectors were selected as urban administrative boundaries of Cyeza, Nyamabuye, and Shyogwe for the high population density that exists (District of Muhanga District Development Strategy, 2018).

Muhanga is located in an area well-watered, at an altitude between 1100 and 1200 meters. This region enjoys a climate of four seasons including a short rainy season, which extends from October to December, a short dry season that runs from January to February, a long rainy season from March to June and a long dry season from June to August or early September. The District is located mainly in the agro-bio-climatic region called “Granite Ridge” with one part located in the “Central Plateau” with hilly topography.  The other part of the District is on the high mountains of the Nil-Congo with four peaks prancing beyond 2000 meters (Saruheshyi, Kanyarira, Mukingi, and Samba). The district’s vegetation is predominantly made up of crops and artificial forests. The crops consist of large banana with the combination of avocado, sweet potatoes, cassava, etc. The majority of the current afforested consists of Eucalyptus, Pinus, and a few grevilleas (District of Rubavu District Development Strategy, 2018).

Size of population (year) 319,141 (2012)
Size (km²) 647.7 km²
Population density (year) 493 hab/km²
Official language(s) Kinyarwanda, French, English
Major economic activities in the city The Districts key economic sectors included Infrastructure development, agriculture, private sector development. Data on sector contributions were not available.
Population growth trend 2.6% (Source: Green Secondary City Strategy, 2012)
% of population living in urban areas 15.86% (2012)
Average annual rate of urbanization Population grew by 111% between 2002 – 2012. Expected growth of urban population between 2012 – 2020: 121% (Green Secondary City Strategy, 2012)
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile

Information forthcoming.

Size of population (year)
Size (km²)
Population density (year)
Official language(s)
Major economic activities in the city
Population growth trend
% of population living in urban areas
Average annual rate of urbanization
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile

Information forthcoming.

Size of population (year)
Size (km²)
Population density (year)
Official language(s)
Major economic activities in the city
Population growth trend
% of population living in urban areas
Average annual rate of urbanization
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile

Rubavu District is one of 30 districts in Rwanda and one of the 7 districts comprising the Western province of Rwanda, 152 km from Kigali City. It has a total surface area of 388.3 km2. It borders the Nyabihu District in the east, the Democratic Republic of Congo t0 the north and west, and the Rutsiro district to the south. That geographical location helps Rubavu establish itself as a business, cross-border trade, and tourism hub. The District of Rubavu is composed by 12 administrative sectors, 80 Cells and 525 Villages, with the main urban center being Gisenyi located on the border with the DRC. Rubavu is the only District in Rwanda where agriculture employs less than 50% of the workforce (District of Rubavu District Development Strategy, 2018).

The District has an equatorial climate with an average altitude. Average temperature ranges from 15 °C on the vertices, 20 ° C at borders of Lake Kivu, and night time temperatures that can drop to 6 ° C. Rubavu District belongs to the Kivu Nile and Sebeya catchments which serve as the main sources of water for the district and neighboring districts. Rainfall in Rubavu District varies between 1200 mm and 1500 mm per year. The Land of North-west District has a very rich but shallow, volcanic ash and lava decomposed soil, while land southeast have deep soils but poor, often acidic, sandy clay, leached by high erosion. Agricultural biodiversity includes maize, beans, pyrethrum, coffee and tea, among others, contributing to the region’s food security and livelihood. The forest resources act as important watershed functions that provide water for domestic and industrial use, allow for energy generation, and keep water bodies free of siltation (District of Rubavu District Development Strategy, 2018).

Size of population (year) 403,662 (2012)
Size (km²) 388.3 km²
Population density (year) 1,039 hab/km²
Official language(s) Kinyarwanda, French, English
Major economic activities in the city Agriculture, tourism, and business Services
Population growth trend 5% (Source: Green Secondary City Strategy, 2012)
% of population living in urban areas 37% (2012)
Average annual rate of urbanization Population grew by 137% between 2002 – 2012. Expected growth of urban population between 2012 – 2020: 182% (Green Secondary City Strategy, 2012)
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website Click here
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile

Information forthcoming.

Size of population (year)
Size (km²)
Population density (year)
Official language(s)
Major economic activities in the city
Population growth trend
% of population living in urban areas
Average annual rate of urbanization
Greenhouse Gas emissions (total in C02e/year)
City official website
carbonn Climate Registry (cCR) profile

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